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Staking 2019 ov

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Ryzhkov, G. Ryzhkova, published in Forest Staking 2019 ov Issues Vol. Ryzhkova V. Dynamics of staking 2019 ov spatial structure and composition of oak forests over the past 50 years is analyzed.

Patterns and special features of the tree and shrub distribution in the open spaces fallows, virgin steppes, and pastures are presented.

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Ravine and watershed oak forests, mostly coppice ones, are predominant here. It is a common fact that various types of digital cartographic materials presented in a certain system of coordinates or projection form the basis of geographic information systems GIS.

During the pre-GIS times s to sthere click at this page only hard copies of the maps of the reserve.

Mapping of the vegetation cover, including woody vegetation, has been used to study the natural complexes of CCR since the middle of the past century.

A significant part of staking 2019 ov materials of read article period was represented by geobotanical and forest management maps.

The results of cartographic studies of that time are covered in a series of publications Kartometricheskie issledovanija…, ; Kashkarova, Rubajlo, Staking 2019 ov, ; Neshataev, ; Neshataev, Novikova, Uhacheva, ; Petrova, ; Ryzhkov, Sobakinskih, ; Utehin,etc.

Cartographic work mainly involved continuous planimetric eye survey, creating a stationing grid on the ground and writing down the results on paper.

Plant associations or their complexes and types, i. Large territorial units of the CCR sites and ecosites usually were the objects of hard fork bitcoin cash. The geographical location of the Central Chernozem Reserve, which lies in the central forest-steppe zone, determines the direct contact between forest and steppe vegetation, so many researchers have staking 2019 ov paying great attention to the relationship between them.

A separate cycle of mapping on the reserve territory included studying the distribution of tree and shrub species in strictly protected areas both virgin and former fallow lands.

The survey of andresulted in preparation of location maps of the bases of tree trunks and contours of shrub thickets Krasnitskij, ; Krasnitskij, Soshnin,and the mapping of — staking 2019 ov in a detailed map of projective covers of trees and shrubs both single and thickets-forming.

Dynamics of the distribution of woody vegetation on Dalneye Pole fallow was analyzed in webmoney withdrawal fees series of papers Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, a,b,c; Ryzhkova, Ryzhkov, It is exactly the mapping of tree and shrub distribution across the steppe that underlies the testing of modern survey methods, which is the subject of this article.

Forest management works were carried out 5 times in,and within the territory of the reserve. Afforestation plans were made in hard copies, and it was only in that both hard copies and electronic more info were created maps best mining os 2019 digitized at the federal state institution Voronezhlesproject, initially in WinGIS software with subsequent conversion to MapInfo in Cartesian coordinates.

Staking 2019 ov series of geobotanical and forest management maps objectively reflect the general trends in vegetation dynamics. However, taking a plant association or a forest type as a mapping unit suggests significant errors in the accuracy of rendering their contours, which is staking 2019 ov due to subjective factors.

In our opinion, the most detailed and complete reflection of the dynamics of woody vegetation is provided by regular cartographic works performed at stationary research sites, or Staking 2019 ov permanent test plots PTPsprofiles, transects, registration sites, individual restricted access facilities, etc.

In this case, real individual trees and shrubs or their biogroups thickets are taken as staking 2019 ov units. Obviously, no linking natural objects are petrodollar xrp apologise geographical coordinates, which are used in modern GIS, were not even in question during the pre-GIS period.

The cartographic materials compiled from surveys on stationary sites are the most accurate and objective in terms of reflecting the statics and dynamics of vegetation cover, forming the basis for a comprehensive just click for source, analysis and modelling of the development of natural ecosystems.

Stationary cartographic works are even more important when repeated, which makes it possible to track local and global dynamic trends of the vegetation Ryzhkov, b. The method of stationary studies of woody vegetation in nature reserves has been published before Ryzhkov, b.

Stationary methods of studying the vegetation cover of the reserve have read article being practiced on its territory since the end of the World War II. Zozulin mapped these PTPs repeatedly in and analyzed the dynamics of changes in their vegetation over a five-year period Staking 2019 ov, Kusmarceva, Special symbols designating the bases of tree trunks and clusters of shrubs were approximately applied on the diagrams according to relief features.

In the following years, cartographic research on the SRSs of the reserve was conducted by G. ZozulinS.

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Levickij, F. HakimzyanovaA. Krasnitskijand others. The full review of these works staking 2019 ov given by Ryzhkov, b.

A number of forest PTPs was laid in by A. Krasnitskij and in and during subsequent forest management measures, in the oak forests of the CCR, where forest-taxation studies are staking 2019 ov out from time to time, in particular complete enumerations and mapping of stands, undergrowth, understorey and grass cover.

Modern methods 2019 coinhive alternative the staking 2019 ov mapping have been implemented staking 2019 ov the reserve.

These methods make use of new satellite positioning devices, unmanned aerial vehicles UAVsand desktop and mobile geo-information systems. The objective of this paper is to give a review of cartographic research results in the CCR and demonstrate the advantages of using modern GIS software and hardware to study forest-steppe ecosystems.

The tasks of this paper are: to show the dynamics of forest vegetation based on the materials of periodic mapping at the PTPs, to assess the state of stands of the main species, and to present the findings of studying tree and shrub distribution in the steppe.

Several methodological approaches are distinguished, depending on the types of source data intended for GIS. Next, the methods and results of mapping woody vegetation at SRSs will be discussed. Layout plans of trunk bases and projections of tree staking 2019 ov link species and tiers staking 2019 ov showing standing dead trees and windthrow were drawn at a scale of on grid paper in the field for each just click for source plot.

It staking 2019 ov the horizontal structure of forest communities on 14 SRSs, namely, the projective cover of stands, undergrowth and understorey based on mapping data from — and Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, a which was studied in greatest detail.

This method was fully polished when mapping complex watershed oak forests and waterlogged birch forests of the Zorinsky site of the CCR Zolotuhin, Ryzhkov, Filatova, ; Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, In —, those paper plans were scanned and their fragments were stitched into staking 2019 ov bitmaps.

Next, it would technically make sense to register the resulting rasters directly in the GIS and vectorization directly in association with terrain. However, no desktop GIS version was available in the reserve during mapping and creating the electronic map archive.

Staking 2019 ov, digitization was staking 2019 ov in AutoCAD.

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As the licensed version of the MapInfo Professional GIS appeared in the reserve, it became necessary to link the AutoCAD-vector layers of crown projections of the stands to the staking 2019 ov href="https://tovar-show.ru/2019/best-undervalued-cryptocurrency-2019.html">link of tree trunks, as well as the projective coverings of undergrowth and understorey of forest PTPs.

The https://tovar-show.ru/2019/bitcoin-trading-2019.html MapInfo tool allows registration of vector layers only by three reference points, which staking 2019 ov clearly not enough for accurate transformation.

Therefore, staking 2019 ov used the loose MiTransformer module, which, based on affine or projective transformations, allows registering vector objects of several tables at once using an unlimited number of reference points which provides staking 2019 ov quality of terrain association.

To automatically create a vector layer of basal areas of tree trunks mine bitcoin on android 2019 forest PTPs, the function of creation circle with the given centre and given diameter in the MapCAD module was used, and the values of the latter were taken from the numeric field of the table database Ryzhkov, Trunk centres were marked on top of the bitmap by manual application of a symbol inside each circle.

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Basal areas are easily adjusted by constructing centroids to generate circles with given diameters. Correct transformation of the borders of crown staking 2019 ov polygons requires preliminary staking 2019 ov thinning of their nodes using appropriate GIS software MapInfo or ArcGIS.

The following approach, which is currently used, is better in terms staking 2019 ov methods and time. Further, in the GIS environment, the objects were vectorized manually on the screen with terrain association in the universal transverse Staking 2019 ov projection zone 37, Northern hemisphere WGS 84 [EPSG] and subsequent analytical calculations are carried out Ryzhkov, Ryzhkova, b.

The described method based on digitization of paper diagrams allows using map materials obtained in a conditional usually Cartesian coordinate system in GIS. The next two methods are based on data from field surveys of objects with satellite positioning devices of different classes, which makes possible their export to GIS based on the obtained mineable coins 2019 coordinates.

Total survey using personal navigation devices and GIS. These devices staking 2019 ov record geographical coordinates of waypoints and tracks and store them in non-volatile memory.

The above-named mobile equipment makes it possible to navigate through bitmaps.

The resulting point and line objects were exported to GIS using specialized software. The finishing processing boundary smoothing, converting polylines to polygons, etc. The main disadvantages of this method are its inability to save staking 2019 ov necessary attributes with graphics, and low accuracy of recording coordinates 3—5 m and more.

Starting fromdetailed cartographic studies have been carried out at the CCR including application of modern hardware and software, i. This equipment was tested when mapping the distribution of trees and shrubs on the Second staking 2019 ov section of the Streletskaya steppe which is the largest and most representative part of the Streletsky site with an area of This object has been completely protected since No total ground mapping was itrade pay here previously.

The high-resolution pictures, obtained from drones, were used to create orthophotomaps of the terrain and refine controversial contours in hardly accessible areas of steppe shrub thickets.

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Data was processed, analysed, and visualized in MapInfo Professional v. Mobile application: TerraSync Centimeter Edition v. High accuracy of location detection by the Trimble GeoExplorer GeoXH CE allowed using a virtual stationing grid for mapping instead of a real one, the creation of which required considerable effort during conventional mapping of vegetation cover in click at this page periods.

The main and additional stationing grids with unique numbering of squares were uploaded into the staking 2019 ov in SHP format for subsequent staking-out. A unique feature of the GPS PathFinder Office desktop software is the ability to develop a mobile GIS structure as a field data collection form with a specific staking 2019 ov of fields, which was used during the woody vegetation survey.

Two types of data were saved during mapping: point trunk bases and polygonal crown projections ones. At the same time attribute information based on these data was staking 2019 ov. Field work included mapping of woody vegetation with a complete enumeration of trees and shrubs all specimens starting from the immature age state were taken into account, and juvenile plants found were also recorded.

Trimble GeoExplorer GeoXH determined geographical coordinates and altitude of the trunk bases of single trees and shrubs above sea level, in order to consistently form an array of waypoints suitable for building point-based thematic maps in GIS.

Isolated contours thickets of vegetation were mapped by traversing staking 2019 ov perimeter with the above device. The device was configured to record only high-quality objects, the planimetric coordinate error of staking 2019 ov did not exceed the set value in most cases, it is usually 2—3 cm when the sky is open and 50— cm under tree crowns and in dense thickets of shrubs.

Simultaneously with the mapping, detailed attribute information was collected for each object. For a state of pakistan debt 2019 enumeration in the field, the following information was entered in a staking 2019 ov form: site, ecosite, author sdate, time, polygon or point number, species, origin, trunk perimeter or diameter staking 2019 ov breast height cmtrunk height mage, staking 2019 ov, diseases, life form, fructification, notes for entering additional information and photos only selected objects were photographed.

Parallel to ground mapping of woody vegetation, aerial photography of the section was carried out with DJI Inspire-1 drones.

The resulting pictures were combined into single images https://tovar-show.ru/2019/2winpower-2019.html were used to create orthophotomaps of the unmowed area.

Some photographs, including images of tree and shrub crowns in hardly accessible areas impassable thorny thicketswere recorded separately in GIS and used as an underlay for manual digitizing of the crown contours on the screen.

They were used to create and thematic maps on pages. A detailed method of GIS mapping of woody vegetation using modern hardware and software was published by Ryzhkov et al. Let staking 2019 ov mention, that the direct application of high-precision geodetic devices for mapping woody vegetation under the forest canopy lacks efficiency since there are significant obstacles for satellite signals.

Even when receiving differential corrections in RTK mode, the accuracy of determining coordinates in this case usually does not exceed 1. In addition, stable mobile or radio connection is required. Therefore, conventional mapping involving staking 2019 ov creation of a stationing grid on the ground or geodetic devices of another class, e.

The staff of the reserve has certain experience in operating such equipment. It makes sense to show the patterns of weather changes in the studied area prior to making results review.

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